Q & A
Do not believe unless you are convinced

Buddha said in Kalama Sutta

Do not believe in what you have heard; do not believe in traditions, because they had been handed down for many generations; do not believe in anything because it is rumoured and spoken by many; do not believe merely because a written statement of some old sage is produced; do not believe in that as truth to which you have become attached by habit; do not believe merely the authority of your teachers and elders. After observation and analysis, when it agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and gain of one and all, then accept it and live up to it.

Do not, therefore, believe me when I come to the philosophical issues until and unless you are convinced of what I say either as a sequel to proper reasoning or by means of a practical approach. These things are bad; these things are blamable; these things are censured by the wise; undertaken and observed, these things lead to harm and ill," abandon them. These things are good; these things are not blamable; these things are praised by the wise; undertaken and observed, these things lead to benefit and happiness,' enter on and abide in them.

Abhasita Sutta
Monks, these two slander the Tathagata. Which two?
He who explains what was not said or spoken by the Tathagata as said or spoken by the Tathagata. And he who explains what was said or spoken by the Tathagata as not said or spoken by the Tathagata. These are two who slander the Tathagata.

Maha-parinibbana Sutta (extracted)
The Blessed One said to Ven. Ananda, "Now, if it occurs to any of you-'The teaching has lost its authority; we are without a Teacher'-
do not view it in that way. Whatever Dhamma (laws) & Vinaya (disciplines) I have pointed out & formulated for you, that will be your Teacher when I am gone. Now at that time the twin sal-trees were in full bloom, even though it was not the time for flowering. They showered, strewed, & sprinkled on the Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly coral-tree blossoms fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly sandalwood powder fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly music was playing in the sky, in homage to the Tathagata. Heavenly songs were sung in the sky, in homage to the Tathagata. But it is not to this extent that a Tathagata is worshipped, honored, respected, venerated, or paid homage to. Rather, the monk, nun, male lay follower, or female lay follower who keeps practicing the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, who keeps practicing masterfully, who lives in accordance with the Dhamma: that is the person who worships, honors, respects, venerates, & pays homage to the Tathagata with the highest homage.

Coming up on this site - Laws of the Nature. Be patient, visit regularly.

Cause or Condition
‘Paccaya’ means ‘cause or condition’. It is something on which something else, the so-called ‘conditioned-thing’ (paccayuppanna), is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Paccaya is the cause of the conditioned thing. Paccayuppanna is the effect or result of the cause. In conditioning its paccayuppanna (effect or result), the paccaya (cause or condition) acts in two supportive ways:
1 it causes the effect which has not arisen to arise, and
2 it strengthens the effect which has already arisen.

There are two methods of conditioning:
1 Paticcasamuppàda-method – the Law of Dependent Origination,
2 Patthàna-method – the Law of Causal Relations.

The first method describes the cause and the effect without mentioning how the cause conditions the effect to arise. However, Paticcasamuppàda is a very important doctrine as it describes eleven causal relations which explain the conditionality and dependent nature of uninterrupted flux of manifold physical and mental phenomena of existence.

In other words it explains how each individual is involved in the Wheel of Existence undergoing the rounds of rebirth and misery in the long samsàra. Patthàna method not only describes the cause and the effect but also explains how the cause conditions the effect to arise. It is wonderful to learn that there are 24 modes of conditionality which correlates all the physical and psychical phenomena by cause and effect with specific illustrations occurring in real life.

1 Paticcasamuppàda Method The Paticcasamuppàda method of correlating the cause and the effect is generally known as the Law of Dependent Origination. The brief essential statement of the law runs like this:

1 Avijjà-paccayà sankhàrà – Dependent on ignorance arise the rebirth-producing volition or kamma formations.

2 Sankhàra-paccayà vinnànam Dependent on kamma formations (in past life) arises rebirth consciousness (in the present life). 3 Vinnàna-paccayà nàma-rupam – Dependent on rebirth consciousness arise the mental and physical phenomena.

4 Nàma-rupa-paccayà salàyatanam – Dependent on the mental and physical phenomena arise the six (sense) bases.

5 Salàyatana-paccayà phasso – Dependent on the six (sense) bases arise contact (between sense base, sense object and consciousness).

6 Phassa-paccayà vedanà – Dependent on contact arises feeling.

7 Vedanà-paccayà tanhà – Dependent on feeling arises craving.

8 Tanhà-paccayà upàdànam
– Dependent on craving arises grasping.

9 Upàdàna-paccayà bhavo
– Dependent on grasping arises the rebirth-producing kamma (kamma-bhava) and the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava).

10 Bhava-paccayà jàti
– Dependent on the rebirth-producing kamma (in the present life) arises rebirth (in the future life).

11 Jàti-paccayà jarà-maranam-soka-parideva-dukkha-domanassa, upàyàsà sambhavanti
= Dependent on rebirth arise old age, death, worry, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.
Thus arises the whole mass of suffering again in the future.
-Buddha Abhidhamma (Dr. Mehm Tin Mon)