Monks, these two slander the Tathagata. Which two?
He who explains what was not said or spoken by the Tathagata as said or spoken
by the Tathagata. And he who explains what was said or spoken by the Tathagata
as not said or spoken by the Tathagata. These are two who slander the Tathagata.
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (extracted)
The Blessed One said to Ven. Ananda, "Now, if it occurs to
any of you-'The teaching has lost its authority; we are without a Teacher'-
do not view it in that way. Whatever Dhamma (laws) & Vinaya (disciplines) I have
pointed out & formulated for you, that will be your Teacher when I am gone. Now
at that time the twin sal-trees were in full bloom, even though it was not the
time for flowering. They showered, strewed, & sprinkled on the Tathagata's body
in homage to him. Heavenly coral-tree blossoms fell from the sky, showering,
strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly
sandalwood powder fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the
Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly music was playing in the sky, in
homage to the Tathagata. Heavenly songs were sung in the sky, in homage to the
Tathagata. But it is not to this extent that a Tathagata is worshipped, honored,
respected, venerated, or paid homage to. Rather, the monk, nun, male lay
follower, or female lay follower who keeps practicing the Dhamma in accordance
with the Dhamma, who keeps practicing masterfully, who lives in accordance with
the Dhamma: that is the person who worships, honors, respects, venerates, & pays
homage to the Tathagata with the highest homage.
Coming up on this site - Laws of the Nature. Be patient, visit regularly.
Cause or Condition
‘Paccaya’ means ‘cause or condition’. It is something on which something else, the so-called ‘conditioned-thing’ (paccayuppanna),
is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Paccaya is the cause of the conditioned thing. Paccayuppanna is the effect or result of the cause.
In conditioning its paccayuppanna (effect or result), the paccaya (cause or condition) acts in two supportive ways:
1 it causes the effect which has not arisen to arise, and
2 it strengthens the effect which has already arisen.
There are two methods of conditioning:
1 Paticcasamuppàda-method – the Law of Dependent Origination,
2 Patthàna-method – the Law of Causal Relations.
The first method describes the cause and the effect without
mentioning how the cause conditions the effect to arise.
However, Paticcasamuppàda is a very important doctrine as it describes
eleven causal relations which explain the conditionality and
dependent nature of uninterrupted flux of manifold physical
and mental phenomena of existence.
In other words it explains how each individual is involved in the Wheel of Existence
undergoing the rounds of rebirth and misery in the long samsàra.
Patthàna method not only describes the cause and the effect but
also explains how the cause conditions the effect to arise. It is
wonderful to learn that there are 24 modes of conditionality
which correlates all the physical and psychical phenomena by
cause and effect with specific illustrations occurring in real life.
1 Paticcasamuppàda Method
The Paticcasamuppàda method of correlating the cause and the
effect is generally known as the Law of Dependent Origination.
The brief essential statement of the law runs like this:
1 Avijjà-paccayà sankhàrà –
Dependent on ignorance arise the rebirth-producing
volition or kamma formations.
2 Sankhàra-paccayà vinnànam –
Dependent on kamma formations (in past life) arises
rebirth consciousness (in the present life).
3 Vinnàna-paccayà nàma-rupam –
Dependent on rebirth consciousness arise the mental
and physical phenomena.
4 Nàma-rupa-paccayà salàyatanam –
Dependent on the mental and physical phenomena
arise the six (sense) bases.
5 Salàyatana-paccayà phasso –
Dependent on the six (sense) bases arise contact
(between sense base, sense object and consciousness).
6 Phassa-paccayà vedanà –
Dependent on contact arises feeling.
7 Vedanà-paccayà tanhà –
Dependent on feeling arises craving.
8 Tanhà-paccayà upàdànam
– Dependent on craving arises
9 Upàdàna-paccayà bhavo
– Dependent on grasping arises
the rebirth-producing kamma (kamma-bhava) and the
10 Bhava-paccayà jàti
– Dependent on the rebirth-producing
kamma (in the present life) arises rebirth (in the future
11 Jàti-paccayà jarà-maranam-soka-parideva-dukkha-domanassa,
= Dependent on rebirth arise old
age, death, worry, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.
Thus arises the whole mass of suffering again in the future.
-Buddha Abhidhamma (Dr. Mehm Tin Mon)