Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma sambuddhassa
Honour to the Blessed One, the Exalted One, the fully and perfectly Enlightened One

Abhidhamma on the Screen

By Nalini Ranjan Barua (Deceased 18 October, 1979, Rangoon, Burma)
Time and space are Subjective Elements
In Buddhism, both are regarded as subjective elements. Akasa (space) is a permanent concept (nicca-pannati), by which the mind is enabled to distinguish objects in external perception. What space is to matter, time is to mind. Time is the concept (kala-pannati), by which, first and foremost, mental states are distinguished in internal intuition. It is the sine qnd non of the succession of these mental states. This mental property of objective delimitation, or ekaggata, when cultivated and developed, is designated concentration of thought, or samadhi.
-Compendium of Philosophy

Universal mental properties.
1. contact (phassa).
2. feeling (vedana).
3. perception (sanna).
4. will or volition (cetana).
5. oneness of object (ekaggata).
6. psychic life (jivitindriya).
7. attention (manasikara).
How A Type of consciousness analysed
In Buddhist logic adequate analysis of any datum includes an examination of its—
(1) characteristic mark (lakkhana)
(2a) function (kicca-rasa)
(2b) property (sampatti-rasa)
(3a) reappearance as phenomenon (upatthanakara-paccupatthana)
(3b) reappearance as effect (phala-paccupatthana)
(4) proximate cause (padatthana)
-Compendium of Philosophy

Six particular cetasikas
1. Vitakka (directing of concomitant properties towards the object)
2. Vicara (the continued exercise of the mind on that object)
3. Adhimokkha (the property by which the mind decides, or chooses to attend to this, rather than that)
4. Viriya (The effort of conation or will is due to viriya)
5. Piti (signifies an interest in the object)
6. Chanda (constitutes the intention with respect to act)

Four Universal Immoral cetasikas
1. Moha (illusion)
2. Ahirika (The absence of shame in the commission of an evil act)
3. Anottappa (the absence of fear of its consequences)
4. Uddhacca (The distraction of the mind/attention/Restlessness)
Three phases of Thought
There are three phases—genesis (uppada), development (thiti), and dissolution (bhanga). Each of these phases occupies an infinitesimal division of time—an instant (khana)—so that to every separate state of consciousness there are three instants, in which successively it becomes, exists, and disappears. These three instants —nascent, static, and cessant (or arrested)—together form one mental moment (cittakkhana), the period occupied by any single state of consciousness, or any separate act of mind or thought. And it pleases commentators to say that there are more than one billon of such thoughtmoments in the time that would be occupied by the shortest flash of lightning.
-Compendium of Philosophy

Buddhism is a highly practical religion, most disciplined by highest ethics. Its philosophical section - Abhidhamma - is very dry and hard as well. Harder it is to understand, and hardest yet, to realise by practical application in one's own life. Saying goes to record, that one will have no inclination at all, to pay even slightest heed to it, unless he is equipped with Parami (qualities or virtues, the cultivation of which leads to enlightenment) gained in previous births.

Hardest though, it has always been found most convincing and fascinating, once the crust could be broken through. Now, the point is : how to break through the hardest crust, in as simple a way as possible, to get to the most interesting core of this wonderful Tenet, definitely conducive to a spiritual position never heard of before Gautama - THE BUDDHA.

While studying "ABHIDHAMMATTHA SANGAHA" under a competent Guru (Sayagi U Maung Maung), I have conceived an idea to make the subject attractive in a very simple way which, I am inclined to claim, will impress on a listener's mind a permanent curiosity to dive deep into the subject. The originality of the simple way cannot be claimed by anyone else other than my Guru, whereas the mode of presentation in an attractive manner is my own idea.

Note: The rest of the article is about the presentation technicality. Therefore, it is not posted here and used only for implementation.

A Brief Introduction to Abhidhamma

Buddha preached Abhidhamma in Tusita heaven to mother Queen Mahamaya Devi who died seven days after giving birth to the Price Siddhatha and was reborn in Tusita heaven as a Deva. In fact, every Buddha's mother die seven days after giving birth. Why? (will be posted in this website later) It took three months on earth to teach the whole Abhidhamma, but it was a short time in heaven. As Buddha had enormous super-natural power, Buddha used to leave an exact copy of the Buddha (with Buddha's super-natural power) to continue teaching in heaven and the real Buddha used to come down on earth every day to eat, to take bath etc. as Buddha was a human. Every day Buddha told Sariputta, Buddha's right-hand disciple, what was preached in heaven. Sariputta in turn passed on the Abhidhamma teachings to other selected monks because not every monk would be able to understand Abhidhamma. That is why Abhidhamma is known to human on earth. When Buddha was teaching on earth, He used to teach simultaneously in many different places, different topics, diferent suttas, using Buddha's enormous super-natural power.

Two kinds of realities

1. Sammuti-Sacca (Apparent reality)
Conventional or commonly accepted truth. In Abhidhamma terminology, it is called pannatti. The names of living and non-living things. E.g. man, donkey, table, house, etc. In Abhidhamma, the things and persons the name refer to do not really exist. Existence is the interaction of six senses and consciousness. I, you, he, she, monkey, donkey do not really exist, although seem to exist due to illusion. In case of non-living things, they are composed of electrons, protons, neutrons and energy.

An Ancient story
King Milinda of Greece, the only European king who became a Buddhist, once came to India and had a debate with a young intelligent arahat Ven. Nagasena. The King asked, “By what name shall I know you, Sir?” Ven. Nagasena answered, “My companions call me Nagasena. But the name and the person whom the name refers to do not really exist.” The King commented, “If Nagasena and the person do not exist, to whom do people offer alms and who receive these offerings? Since you receive them, you really exist. Why did you tell a lie in spite of your higher nobility?” Ven. Nagasena enquired, “Your Majesty, did you come to this monastery on foot or by chariot?” The King replied, “I came by chariot.” Ven. Nagasena enquired further, “Well then, please show me your chariot? Is the horse the chariot? Is the wheel the chariot? Is the axle the chariot? Is the carriage the chariot?” The King answered “No” to all these question. Ven. Nagasena remarked, “Is there a chariot beside the horse, the wheel, the axle, the carriage, etc.?” The King again said “No”. Ven. Nagasena commented, “Your Majesty, you said you came here by chariot; yet you could not show me the chariot! Why did you tell a lie in spite of your high honour?” The King consented, “There is no chariot beside the horse, the wheels, the axle and the carriage. Just a combination of these things has been named the chariot.” Ven. Nagasena remarked, “Very well, your Majesty, you should understand Nagasena as you understood the chariot.” At the end of the debate, the King accepted Buddha's teachings, became a Buddhist and ordained as a monk. He handed over the throne to his son and never returned to Greece. He had highly advanced in insight meditation and became an arahat like Ven. Nagasena. (This story is extracted from Buddha Abhidhamma)

Beings are composed of Name (nama) and Form (rupa). Nama is made up of Citta (Consciousness) and Cetasika (Mental Factors), which are Ultimate reality.

2. Paramattha-Sacca (Ultimate reality)
Something that cannot be changed into or divided up into other things. They are also not permanent. In Abhidhamma, it is called paramattha. They are, in their ultimate sense, formless and shapeless just as bundles of energy.

Four Paramattha

1. Citta (Consciousness)
Citta is that which is aware of an object. It is not that which thinks of an object. Citta is also called Vinnana as synonymous term.

Cittas are divided into four classes as it arises in four planes - Kama-loka (Kama cittas), Rupa-loka (Rupa cittas), Arupa-loka (Arupa cittas) and Lokutara (Lokuttara cittas)

1. Kamavacara cittas - consciousness mostly experienced in the sense sphere
2. Rupavacara cittas - consciousness mostly experienced in the fine-material sphere
3. Arupavacara cittas - consciousness mostly experienced in the immaterial sphere
4. Lokuttara cittas - consciousness mostly experienced in the supramundane level (when Nibbana is realised)

There are 89 or 121 types of combinations of cittas with various cetasikas which will be posted here.

Kiriya is causally ineffective. Good deeds of Buddhas, Pacceka Buddhas and Arahants are called Kiriya because Kamma is not accumulated by them as they have gone beyond both good and evil, but previous births kama can still give effect to them, if they are still operative.

Vipàka (an effect in itself) and Kiriya (it does not produce an effect) are collectively called Abyàkata. which does not manifest itself in the way of an effect.

Kamavacara cittas or kama cittas – 54

Akusala cittas – 12
     They are:-
          8 lobha-mula (rooted in attachement) cittas (consciousness),
          2 dosa-mula (rooted in ill-will or hatred) cittas and
          2 mohamula (rooted in ignorance or delusion) cittas.

Ahetuka cittas – 18
     They comprise:-
          7 akusala (unwholesome) vipaka (results of evil done in former birth) cittas,
          8 ahetuka (without root) kusala (wholesome) vipaka (results of good done in a former birth) cittas and
          3 ahetuka kiriya (kammically neutral) cittas (Functional Consciousness without Roots).

Kama-sobhana cittas – 24
     They are divided into:-
          8 maha-kusala cittas (Moral Consciousness),
          8 maha-vipaka cittas (Resultant Consciousness) and
          8 maha-kiriya (Functional Consciousness) cittas.

Total 54 Kamavacara cittas or Kama cittas

Rupavacara Citta 15

     5 Rupavacara Kusala citta (Form-sphere Moral consciousness)
     5 Rupavacara Vipaka Citta (Form-sphere Jhana R3esultant consciousness)
     5 Rupavacara Kiriya Citta (Form-sphere Functional consciousness)

Arapavacara cittas 12

     4 Arupavacara Kusala Cittas (Formless-sphere moral consciousness)
     4 Arupavacara Vipaka Cittas (Formless-sphere resultant consciousness)
     4 Arupavacara Kriya cittas (Formless-sphere functional consciousness)

The 15 rapavacara cittas and the 12 arapavacara cittas (27 cittas) are collectively known as mahaggata cittas.

The 54 kamavacara cittas and the 27 mahaggata cittas are collectively known as
81 lokiya cittas.

Lokuttara cittas (Supramumdane) – 8 or 40

The 4 magga-cittas (path-consciousness) and
     1 Sotapatti Path consciousness
     1 Sakadagami Path consciousness
     1 Anagami Path consciousness
     1 Arahatta path consciousness

     4 magga-cittas (path-consciousness)

The 4 phalacittas (fruit-consciousness) constitute
     1 Sotapatti Fruit-consciousness
     1 Sakadagami Fruit-consciousness
     1 Anagami Fruit-consciousness
     1 Arahatta Fruit-consciousness

4 phalacittas (fruit-consciousness)

8 lokuttara cittas (supramundane consciousness).

81 lokiya cittas + 8 lokuttara cittas = 89 cittas

When 8 lokuttara cittas (supramundane consciousness) are multiplied by 5 jhanas factors (5x8 = 40), we get 40 lokuttara cittas.

81 lokiya cittas + 40 lokuttara cittas = 121 cittas

These are just a summary of all consciousness (cittas) arising in association with cetasika. In what combination or nature they arise

Vatthu Sangaha (Physical Base)
Vatthu’ means ‘physical base’ depending on which the various cittas and the associated cetasikas arise. There are six such physical bases.
1 Cakkhu-vatthu – cakkhu-pasàda (eye sense-organ)
2 Sota-vatthu – sota-pasàda (ear sense-organ)
3 Ghàna-vatthu – ghàna-pasàda (nose sense-organ)
4 Jivhà-vatthu – jivhà-pasàda (tongue sense-organ)
5 Kàya-vatthu – kàya-pasàda (body sense-organ)
6 Hadaya-vatthu – physical base that exist in the blood of the heart (heart-base)

Dvara Sangaha (Sense-Doors)
Here cittas and cetasikas will be compiled briefly based on the six sense-doors. ‘Dvara’ means ‘door’. There are six doors in our body through which outside senses can enter.

1 Cakkhu-dvàra – eye-door (cakkhu-pasàda)
2 Sota-dvàra – ear-door (sota-pasàda)
3 Ghàna-dvàra – nose-door (ghàna-pasàda)
4 Jivhà-dvàra – tongue-door (jivhà-pasàda)
5 Kàya-dvàra – body-door (kàya-pasàda)
6 Mano-dvàra – mind-door (19 bhavaïga-cittas)

Six Roots or Cause or Root-Condition Hetu
There are 3 moral roots and 3 immoral roots. The three immoral roots (akusala-hetus) are:
1 Lobha – greed or attachment
2 Dosa – ill-will or hatred
3 Moha – ignorance or delusion.

Three moral roots (kusala-hetus) are:
4 Alobha – non-attachment
5 Adosa – good-will
6 Amoha – wisdom.

2. Cetasika (Mental Factors)
Mental Factors or mental Concomitants. Cetasika arise and perish together with consciousness, have the same object and basis as consciousness. Neither Citta or Cetasika can arise independently. There are 52 kinds of cetasikas. One of these is Vedana (feeling) and another is Sanna (perception). The remaining 50 are collectively called Sankhara. The receptacle of these mental properties is Vinnana (consciousness).

According to the above, the so-called being is composed of five Groups or Aggregates (Pancakkhandha) :- Rupa (matter), Vedana (feeling), Sanna (perception), Sankhara (mental states) and Vinnana (consciousness). The whole group of feelings is called Vedanakkhandha, similarly, are Sannakkhandha and Sankharakkhandha.

Seven cetasika (mental states) are common to every consciousness (Sabbacitta-sadharana). They are :-
1. Contact (Phasso)      2. Feeling (Vedana)      3. Perception (Sanna)       4. Volition (Cetana)      5. One-Pointedness (Ekaggata)      6. Psychic life (Jivitindriyam)       7. Attention (Manasikaro)

Six Particulars (Pakinnaka)
1. Initial Application or thought conception (Vitakko)       2. Sustained Application or discursive thinking (Vicaro)       3.Decision or determination (Adimokkho)       4. Effort or energy or exertion (Viriyam)      5. Joy (Piti)       6. Conation or wish or desire or will (Chando)

These associate with those cittas that they should associate.
The above 13 mental states should be understood as 'common to each other' (annasamana). When associated with moral (beautiful) cittas, the others are regarded as another and vice versa.

Fourteen Akusala Immoral cetasika.
1. Moha (Delusion)       2. Ahirikam (Shamelessness)       3. Anottappam (Fearlessness of consequences or to commit wrong)       4. Uddhaccam (Restlessness)       5. Lobho (Attachment)       6. Ditthi (Misbelieve)       7. Mano (Conceit)       8. Doso (Hatred)       9. Issa (Jealous)       10. Macchariyam (Avarice) 11. Kukkuccam (Worry)       12. Thinam (Sloth)       13. Middham (Torpor)       14. Vicikiccha (Doubt)

Nineteen Sobhanasadharana Beautiful cetasika
1. Saddha (Confidence)       2. Sati (Mindfulness)       3. Hiri (Moral Shame)       4. Ottappam (Moral Dread)       5. Alobho (Non-attachment)       6. Adoso (Goodwill)    7. Tatramajjhattata (Equanimity)       8. Kayapassaddhi (Tranquillity of mental states)       9. Cittapassaddhi (Tranquillity of mind)       10. Kayalahuta (Lightness of mental states)       11. Cittalahuta (Lightness of mind)       12. Kayamuduta (Pliancy of mental states)       13. Cittamuduta (Pliancy of mind)       14. Kayakammannata (Adaptability of mental states)       15. Cittakammannata (Adaptability of mind)       16. Kayapagunnata (Proficiency of mental states)       17. Cittapagunnata (Proficiency of mind)       18. Kayujjukata (Rectitude of mental states)       19. Cittujjukata (Rectitude of mind)

Three Viratiyo Abstinences cetasika
1. Sammavaca (Right Speech)       2. Sammakammanto (Right Action)       3. Samma-ajivo (Right Livelihood)

Two Appamanna Illimitable cetasika
1. Karuna (Compassion)       2. Mudita (Appreciative or Sympathetic Joy)

One Pannindriya Wisdom cetasika
1. Pannindriya (Wisdom)

Total 52 Cetasika

3. Rupa (Matter)
There are 28 species of matter.

Rupa-samuddesa (Enumeration of Rupa)
First rupa is twofold namely :-
i Bhuta-rupa – essentials, and
ii Upadaya-rupa – derivatives (material qualities derived from them).
Bhuta -rupa is also called mahabhuta (Great Essentials).

Four Great Essentials (Mahabhuta)
1 Pathavi
The element of extension with the characteristics of hardness and softness. Extension means occupation in space.

2 Apo
The element of cohesion with the characteristics of cohesiveness and fluidity. It is the apo element that makes different particles of matter cohere and hold them together.

3 Tejo
The element of heat or heat energy with the characteristics of hotness and coldness. Vivacity (liveliness), maturity, hotness and coldness are due to tejo. Both heat and cold are the properties of tejo or heat-energy.

4 Vayo
The element of motion or kinetic energy with the characteristics of pushing and supporting.

Eleven kinds of material qualities :-

1. Essential material qualities
1. pathavi           2. apo            3. tejo            4. vayo

Twenty four Upada-rupas (Twenty-four Derivatives)

2. Sensitive material qualities
5. eye            6. ear            7. nose            8. tongue            9. body

3. Material qualities of sense-objects
10. visible form            11. sound            12. odour            13. taste            tangibility (Earth, Fire, and water combined)

4. Material quality of sex
14. femininity            15.masculinity

5. Material quality of base
16. heart-base

6. Material quality of life
17. vital force (Rupa Jivitindriyam) (material part of life faculty E.g. when a part of a body (e.g. animals' tail) is cut-off, it is still moving)
In Seven cetasika (mental states) common to every consciousness, there is Nama Jivitindriya. Seventeen Nama Jivitindriyas arise and perish during the brief life of one Rupa Jivitindriya. Both Nama Jivitindriya and Rupa Jivitindriya arise at the moment of conception. They simultaneously perish at the moment of decease. Hence death is regarded as the destruction of this Jivitindriya. At the time of death, Rupa Jivitindriyam arises for the last time in that body (Kama ended there). But Nama Jivitindriyam cannot arise in that body anymore, because supporting Rupa Jivitindriyam does not arise in that body. Where do Nama Jivitindriyam go?

Immediately after death consciousness, due to the power of Kamma, another Nama-Javitindriya arises in the subsequent birth at the moment of conception as part of Rebirth Consciousness
(all kama from past countless existences follow with this being like shade follows someone who is walking under the sun), simultaneously there arise three Rupa Jivitindriyas in the case of a human being at the first time as Rebirth process. They are the Rupa Jivitindriya of the ‘body decad’ (kayadasaka) ‘sex-decad’ (bhavadasaka) and ‘seat-decad’ (vatthudasaka) and inherits physical appearance (in this case one might say genetic properties) of parents, which is quite different from his previous life. Then the new life continues with the arising and perishing of consciousness and Rupa Jivitindriyas one after another (impermanent).

In the debate of King Milinda of Greece and Ven. Nagasena, the King asked, "You Buddhist believe born again, What is that born again?" Ven. Nagasena replied, "Name and Form is born again." (When conceived in the mother's womb, Nama Jivitindriya from previous existence reappear for the first time together with the Rupa Jivitindriyam which arise in the mother's womb simultaneously with Rebirth Consciousness, as new life.) Then the King asked, "Is that the same Name and Form that is born again?" Ven. Nagasena replied, "No sameness and no otherness is found." It is not the same, but it is also not the other. The King could not understand and said, "Please explain!" (It is not the same because new life inherits all physical appearances from the parents, which is different from previous parents. But Nama Jivitindriya is the same one from the previous existence.) This applies in the planes or spheres where there are name and form. This will not apply in Aruploka formless sphere.
Buddha said that there are no such beings whom someone had not related to in the past because all beings had countless existences in the past.

Note: In the Introductory Essay to the Compendium of Buddhist Philosophy (First published in 1910) Shwe Zan Aung B.A stated :-
The object of the profound analysis known as Abhidhamma, is to show generally that such state of consciousness is no simple modification of a mind-stuff, and, above all, that there is no soul or ego which is apart from the states of consciousness; but that each seemingly simple state is in reality a highly complex compound, constantly changing and giving rise to new combinations. It is only of late years that it has come to be recognised in the West that for no two consecutive moments is the fabric of the body the same; and yet this doctrine was taught by the Buddha more than twenty-three centuries ago.

The following is the extraction from the book "Studies in Buddhism" by Dr Beni Madhab Barua M.A, D. Lit (London) Late Professor of Pali, Calcutta University, India.
King Asoka, for instance, who was the most enlightened emperor with original vision, said : "When I see myself as good, I desire to have it translated into action by some definite means."
Thus it is claimed that in the case of Buddha the conviction, whether religious, philosophic or moral, is born of actual experience or direct knowledge. This being the case, doubt or scepticism is set at rest; it has no place in it. We may doubt everything else but not what we have actually apprehended or seen. We cannot be sceptical over our own experience. The sceptic is the common enemy of divines and philosophers. Doubt darkness counsel. It leaves human mind in a state of indecision, making it oscillate like a pendulum between two alternatives, two extremes of thought or of action, to be or not to be, to say or not to say, to do or not to do.
There is no wonder then that the entire psycho-ethical system of Abhidhamma which was a ripe fruit of the Buddha-knowledge, is designed mainly for the purpose of combating and completely overcoming doubt, perplexity or scepticism and allied mental concomitants and complexes in their various forms and degrees of intensity. The two great weapons for combating this powerful enemy are faith (saddha) and knowledge (panna), which go together, one implying the other, the confirmation of the first lying in the second (pannanvaya saddha). Men's personality or assertive, impressive and convincing element or factor in a forceful human character develops from the inner conviction or confirmed faith in certainty about one's position as to truth and purity.

7. Material quality of nutrition
18. edible food (Nutritive essence that we find in food to eat)

The above 18 are conditioned phenomena - arising, present and passing away - produced by kama

Ten non-conditioned by kamma (They do not have arising, present and passing away)

8. Material quality of limitation
19. The element of space (space between group of matters)

9. Material qualities of communication (By which we let others know our intentions)
20. bodily intimation            21. vocal intimation

10. Material qualities of mutability
22. material lightness            23.pliancy            24. adaptability together with the two forms of intimation

11. Material qualities of characteristics
25. material productivity (Rebirth Consciousness)           26. continuity (continue with the arising and perishing of consciousness)           27. decay (old age decay)           28. impermanence (impermanent character)

Total 28 kinds of rupas with different properties.

4. Nibbana (Extinction of greed, hatred and delusion; freedom from craving)
These consciousness arise only when Nibbana is realised.
Megga - 4 The wisdom consciousness accompanied by the Path
Phala - 4 Its Fruition consciousness
Total - 8

Dividing each (supramundane) consciousness into five kinds according to different Jahna factors, the supramundane consciousness, it is said, becomes forty.

First Jhana Sotapatti - 1            First Jhana Sakadagami - 1
Second Jhana Sotapatti - 1       Second Jhana Sakadagami - 1
Third Jhana Sotapatti - 1          Third Jhana Sakadagami - 1
Fourth Jhana Sotapatti - 1         Fourth Jhana Sakadagami - 1
Fifth Jhana Sotapatti - 1            Fifth Jhana Sakadagami - 1

First Jhana Anagami- 1               First Jhana Arahatta - 1
Second Jhana Anagami - 1         Second Jhana Arahatta - 1
Third Jhana Anagami - 1            Third Jhana Arahatta - 1
Fourth Jhana Anagami - 1          Fourth Jhana Arahatta - 1
Fifth Jhana Anagami - 1             Fifth Jhana Arahatta - 1
Total - 20

Similarly, there are twenty classes of fruit (Phala) consciousness
Total - 40

These consciousness are experienced when a insight meditation practitioner attains Sotapatti or Sakadagami or Anagami or Arahtta state. They are prohibited to tell about their achievements to others to protect from bogus claims.

parajika offense
In Vinaya Pitaka (Monks' Rules), One of the four Pārājika kama of monk's discipline is bogus claims. There are four Pārājika kama :-

This term, according to the Parivāra, derives from a verb meaning to lose or be defeated. A bhikkhu (monk) who commits any of the four following offenses has surrendered to his own mental defilements to such an extent that he defeats the purpose of his having become a bhikkhu in the first place.

1. Voluntary sexual intercourse — genital, anal, or oral — with a human being, non-human being, or common animal is a parajika offense.

2. The theft of anything worth 1/24 ounce troy of gold or more is a pārājika offense.

3. Intentionally bringing about the death of a human being, even if it is still an embryo — whether by killing the person, arranging for an assassin to kill the person, inciting the person to die, or describing the advantages of death — is a pārājika offense.

4. Deliberately lying to another person that one has attained a superior human state is a pārājika offense.

A Bhikkhu (monk) who commits any of these offenses severs himself irrevocably from the life of the Saṅgha (Monk Order) and is no longer considered a bhikkhu (monk). In other words, he is expelled from the monk order.

There are other 223 disciplines to be observer. These can be found in Vinaya Pitaka
Philosophy of death
In that philosophy Death is assigned to one of four causes :
1. The exhaustion of the force of the reproductive ((janaka) kamma) that has given rise to the existence in question (the wick burns out)
2. the expiry of the maximum life-term possible to this particular generation (the oil burns out)
3. the combination of both these causes (both the wick and the oil burn out)
4. the action of a stronger arresting (kamma ) that suddenly cuts off the reproductive kamma before the latter's force is spent, or before the expiry of the life-term (the wind blows suddenly or the light is put out purposely even though the wick and the oil still remain) It is sudden death such as the one encountered in car accident or suicide.
Four Modes of Conceiving
1. Andaja-patisandhi – conceiving in egg shell
2. Jalabuja-patisandhi – conceiving in the womb
3. Samsedaja-patisandhi – conceiving in the hollow or a treetrunk, in a fruit, in a flower, in marsh, in stagnant water, in corpses and carcasses, etc., like flies and mosquitoes.
4. Opapatika-patisandhi – rebirth in the form of a fully grown-up person about 16 years of age as if jumping out of no where.
Note:Andaja-patisandhi and jalabuja-patisandhi are also collectively known as gabbhaseyaka-patisandhi.
The Path of Purification (Visuddhi-magga)
While the Blessed One was living at Savatthi, it seems, a certain deity came to him in the night, and in order to do away with his doubts he asked this question:

‘The inner tangle and the outer tangle-
‘This generation is entangled in a tangle.
‘And so I ask of Gotama this question:
‘Who succeeds in disentangling this tangle?’

Buddha said:
‘When a wise man, established well in Virtue,
‘Develops Consciousness and Understanding,
‘Then as a bhikkhu ardent and sagacious
‘He succeeds in disentangling this tangle’

Here is the meaning in brief.
Tangle is a term for the network of craving. For that is a tangle in the sense of lacing together, like the tangle called network of branches in bamboo thickets, etc., because it goes on arising again and again up and down among the objects [of consciousness] beginning with what is visible. But it is called the inner tangle and the outer tangle because it arises [as craving] for one’s own requisites and another’s, for one’s own person and another’s, and for the internal and external bases [for consciousness].
Since it arises in this way, this generation is entangled in a tangle. As the bamboos, etc., are entangled by the bamboo tangle, etc., so too this generation, in other words, this order of living beings, is all entangled by the tangle of craving- the meaning is that it is intertwined, interlaced by it. And because it is entangled like this, so I ask of Gotama this question, that is why I ask this. He addressed the Blessed One by his race name as Gotama. Who succeeds in disentangling this tangle: who may disentangle this tangle that keeps the three kinds of existence entangled in this way? – What he asks is, who is capable of disentangling it?

See The Path of Purification for detailed explanation of Buddha's reply commented by Bhadantachriya Buddhaghosa
Formations are all impermanent:
When he sees thus with understanding
And turns away from what is ill,
That is the path to purity
Majjhima Nikaya
By deeds, vision and righteousness,
By virtue, the sublimest life
By these are mortals purified,
And not by lineage and wealth
Samyutta Nikaya
He who is possessed of constant virtue,
Has understanding, and is concentrated,
Is strenuous and diligent as well,
Will cross the flood so difficult to cross
Just as a solid massive rock
Remains unshaken by the wind,
So too, in face of blame and praise
The wise remain immovable
Dhammapada 176
The person who tells a lie,
who transgresses in this one thing,
transcending concern for the world beyond:
there's no evil
he might not do
Shelter Against Death-Dhammapada 127
Neither in sky nor surrounding by sea,
nor by dwelling in a mountain cave,
nowhere is found that place in earth
where one’s from evil kamma free.
Craving - Dhammapada 334
When a person lives heedlessly,
his craving grows like a creeping vine.
He runs now here
& now there,
as if looking for fruit:
a monkey in the forest.
Dhammapada 165
Evil is done by oneself
by oneself is one defiled.
Evil is left undone by oneself
by oneself is one cleansed.
Purity & impurity are one's own doing.
No one purifies another.
No other purifies one.
Dhammapada 244
Easy is life for the shameless one who is impudent as a crow,
is backbiting and forward,
arrogant and corrupt.
Dhammapada 164
Foolish people who scoff at teachings of the wise, the noble, and the good, following false doctrines bring about their own down-fall like the khattaka tree, which dies after bearing fruit.
Dhammapada 246-247
One who destroys life, utters lies, takes what is not given, goes to another man's wife, and is addicted to intoxicating drinks — such a man digs up his own root even in this world.
Dhammapada 71
An evil deed, when done,
doesn't — like ready milk —
come out right away.
It follows the fool,
like a fire
hidden in ashes.
Dhammapada 121
Let no man think lightly of evil,
saying in his heart,
It will not come nigh unto me.
Even by the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled;
the fool becomes full of evil,
even if he gather it little by little.
Dhammapada 122
Let no man think lightly of good,
saying in his heart,
It will not come nigh unto me.
Even by the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled;
the wise man becomes full of good,
even if he gather it little by little.
Dhammapada 306
He goes to hell,
the one who asserts
what didn't take place, as does
the one who, having done,
says, 'I didn't.'
Both — low-acting people —
there become equal:
after death, in the world beyond.
Dhammapada 119-120
Even the evil
meet with good fortune
as long as their evil
has yet to mature.
But when it's matured
that's when they meet
with evil.

Even the good
meet with bad fortune
as long as their good
has yet to mature.
But when it's matured
that's when they meet
with good fortune.
Dhammapada 125
Like fine dust thrown against the wind,
evil falls back upon that fool who offends an inoffensive, pure and guiltless man.
Dhammapada 251
There is no fire like lust;
there is no grip like hatred;
there is no net like delusion;
there is no river like craving.
Dhammapada 202
There is no fire like lust
and no crime like hatred.
There is no ill like the aggregates (of existence)
and no bliss higher than the peace (of Nibbana).
Dhammapada 254
There is no track in the sky, and no recluse outside (the Buddha's dispensation). Mankind delights in worldliness, but the Buddhas are free from worldliness.
Dhammapada 255
There is no track in the sky, and no recluse outside (the Buddha's dispensation). There are no conditioned things that are eternal, and no instability in the Buddhas
Dhammapada 396
I don't call one a brahman
for being born of a mother
or sprung from a womb.
He's called a 'bho-sayer'
if he has anything at all.
But someone with nothing,
who clings to no thing:
he's what I call
a brahman.
Dhammapada 423
He knows his former lives.
He sees heavens & states of woe,
has attained the ending of birth,
is a sage who has mastered full-knowing,
his mastery
totally mastered:
he's what I call
a brahman.
Dhammapada 354
A gift of Dhamma conquers all gifts;
the taste of Dhamma, all tastes;
a delight in Dhamma, all delights;
the ending of craving, all suffering & stress.
When the self is not his own-Dhammapada 62
"Sons have I, wealth have I",
thus the fool is fretful.
He himself is not his own,
how then are sons, how wealth?
The Monk In The Village-Dhammapada 49
Just as a bee in a flower
harming neither hue nor scent
gathers nectar, flies away,
so in towns a Wise One fares.
Dhammapada 42
Whatever harm an enemy may do to an enemy,
or a hater to a hater,
an ill-directed mind inflicts on oneself a greater harm.
Well-Trained Mind Excels People Dhammapada 43
What one’s mother, what one’s father,
whatever other kin may do,
the well directed mind indeed
can do greater good.
Dhammapada 15-18
Here he grieves
he grieves hereafter.
In both worlds
the wrong-doer grieves.
He grieves, he's afflicted,
seeing the corruption
of his deeds.

Here he rejoices
he rejoices hereafter.
In both worlds
the merit-maker rejoices.
He rejoices, is jubilant,
seeing the purity
of his deeds.

Here he's tormented
he's tormented hereafter.
In both worlds
the wrong-doer's tormented.
He's tormented at the thought,
'I've done wrong.'
Having gone to a bad destination,
he's tormented
all the more.

Here he delights
he delights hereafter.
In both worlds
the merit-maker delights.
He delights at the thought,
'I've made merit.'
Having gone to a good destination,
he delights
all the more.
Dhammapada 207
Indeed, he who moves in the company of fools grieves for longing.
Association with fools is ever painful, like partnership with an enemy.
But association with the wise is happy, like meeting one's own kinsmen.
The Blessed One said:
Bhikkhus (monks), this human life span is short. There is a new life to be gone to, there are profitable [deeds] to be done, there is the life of purity to be led. There is no not dying for the borne.
Samyutta Nikaya
The life of human kind is short;
A wise man holds it in contempt
And acts as one whose head is burning;
Death will never fail to come
Action and the fruit of action:
Kamma-result proceeds from kamma,
Results has kamma for its source,
Future becoming springs from kamma,
And this is how the world goes round.
- The Path of Purification
Kamma-dvara (Means of Arising kamma)
1 Kaya-dvara
Special bodily movement called kayavinnatti where bodily action (kaya-kamma) occurs.
2 Vaci-dvara
Speech-producing movement of the mouth called vacivinnatti where verbal action (vacikamma) arises.
3 Mano-dvara
All cittas where mental action (mano-kamma) arises.
In accordance with three Kamma-dvara, there are three types of kamma.
1 Kaya-kamma
Bodily action generally performed by special bodily movement called kayavinnatti.
2 Vaci-kamma
Verbal action generally performed by special movement of the mouth called vacivinnatti.
3 Mano-kamma
Mental action performed by the mind through thinking, plotting, meditating, etc.
Ten unwholesome course of action (Akusala-kamma-pathas)
The unwholesome actions may be divided into three groups in accordance with three types of kamma.
1 Akusala-kaya-kamma
     There are 3 unwholesome bodily actions:
     1 Panatipata – killing any living being
     2 Adinnadana – stealing or taking other’s property unlawfully
     3 Kamesu-micchacara - sexual misconduct such as unlawful sexual intercourse
2 Akusala-vaci-kamma
     There are 4 unwholesome verbal actions:
     1 Musavada – lying
     2 Pisunavaca – slandering
     3 Pharusavaca - rude or harsh speech
     4 Samphappalapa – vain talk or foolish babble
3 Akusala-mano-kamma
     There are 3 unwholesome mental actions:
     1 Abhijjha – covetousness
     2 Vyapada – ill-will
     3 Micchaditthi - wrong view
The ten unwholesome actions are also called “ten ducaritas”, meaning “evil conduct”
Of the ten, killing, harsh speech and illwill are accomplished by dosa-mula cittas. Sexual misconduct, covetousness and wrong view are accomplished by lobha-mula cittas. Stealing, lying, slandering and vain talk may be accomplished by either lobhamula or dosa-mula cittas.
Ten wholesome actions (Ten Kusala-kamma-pathas)
They are also divided into three groups in accordance with three types of kamma.
1 Kusala-kaya-kamma
     There are three wholesome bodily actions:
     1 Panatipata-virati – avoidance of killing
     2 Adinnadana-virati – avoidance of stealing
     3 Kamesu-micchacara-virati - avoidance of sexual misconduct
2 Kusala-vaci-kamma
     There are four wholesome verbal actions:
     1 Musavada-virati – avoidance of lying
     2 Pisunavaca-virati – avoidance of slandering
     3 Pharusavaca-virati - avoidance of harsh speech
     4 Samphappalapa-virati – avoidance of vain talk
3 Kusala-mano-kamma
     There are three wholesome mental actions:
     1 Anabhijjha – absence of covetousness (unselfishness)
     2 Avyapada – good-will
     3 Samma-ditthi - right view
Bases of Meritorious Action (Punna-kiriya Vatthu)
If one likes to accumulate wholesome kamma in this life, there are ten bases of meritorious actions which produce good effect and which should be done by all means.
1 Dana group (giving)
     1 Dana – giving charity or generosity
     2 Pattidana – sharing of merit
     3 Pattanumodana - rejoicing in others’ merit
2 Sila group (virtue)
     1 Sila – morality; observing five precepts, eight precepts, ten precepts, etc.
     2 Appacayana – reverence to elders and holy persons
     3 Veyavacca - service in wholesome deeds
3 Bhavana group (meditation)
     1 Bhavana – meditation, both tranquility and insight
     2 Dhamma-savana – listening to the Doctrine
     3 Dhammadesana - expounding the Doctrine
     4 Ditthijjukamma - changing one’s wrong view to right view

Ditthijjukamma may also be included in all the three groups, because one will perform dana, sila and bhavana only if one has the right view about kamma and its effect.
The dana group represents alobha (generosity), and opposes lobha (attachment) and macchariya (stinginess). It is compared to the legs.
The sila group represents adosa (good-will) and opposes issa (jealousy) and dosa (anger). It is compared to the body. The bhavana group represents amoha (wisdom) and opposes moha (ignorance). It is compared to the head.
To have a complete set of legs, body and head, one must perform all the three groups of punna-kiriya-vatthu. The ten punna-kiriya-vatthus are performed with 8 maha kusala cittas unless one attains jhana or magga in meditation. So they generally give rise to kamavacara-kusala kamma. Rupavacara-kusala kamma and arupuvacara-kusala kamma are purely mental actions and they belong to the bhavana group.
-Buddha Abhidhamma

According to the Buddhist canon, there are infinite numbers of world systems and no world system is permanent. Our own earth will come to an end one day. This is somewhat co-related to the observations through the most powerful telescope that old stars are being burnt out and new stars are being formed.
The world may be destroyed by fire, water or wind. When it is destroyed by fire, all the world up to the 3 first-jhana planes will be burnt out. After being destroyed seven times consecutively by fire, the world will be destroyed by water on the eighth time when all the world up to the 3 second-jhana planes will be destroyed.
After being destroyed in regular cycles 7 times by fire and one time by water, the world will be destroyed by wind on the 64th time when all the world up to the 3 third-jhana planes will be destroyed.
Usually Lokapala-devas (guardian-deities of the world) inform the people in advance about the coming destruction of the world. So the people, out of fright, perform good deeds and undertake samatha (tranquillity) meditation to attain the higher jhanas in order to be reborn in higher celestial planes so as to escape the calamity.
--Ref. Buddha Abhidhamma by Dr. Mehm Tin Mon